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The Research of Rind, Bauserman & Tromovitch

Some Research Reports

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Some Research Reports

Rind, B., Bauserman, R. & Tromovitch, Ph.,
An Examination of Assumed Properties of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Nonclinical Samples, Paper presented to the symposium sponsored by the Paulus Kerk, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, on the 18th of December 1998.
"The results of our reviews clearly show that the assumptions of most mental health professionals, legislators, law enforcement personnel, media workers, and the lay public that sexual relations defined as CSA cause intense harm pervasively for both boys and girls are vastly exaggerated."

Rind, B., Bauserman, R. & Tromotvich, Ph.,
Étude des consequences de l'abus sexual sur enfants, ã partir de cas non cliniques, 
Exposé présenté au symposium patronné par Paulus Kerk à Rotterdam, le 18 Décembre 1998.
 
Rind, B., Bauserman, R. & Tromotvich, Ph.,
Een Onderzoek Naar de Veronderstelde Eigenschappen Van Seksueel Misbruik van Kinderen Gebaseerd op Niet-klinische Steekproeven, Lezing, gehouden in Rotterdam op 18 december 1998

Rind, B., Tromovitch, Ph. & Bauserman, R.,
A Meta-Analytic Examination of Assumed Properties of Child Sexual Abuse Using College Samples, in: Psychological Bulletin 1998, Vol 124, No 1, pp 22-53.
"Self-reported reactions to and effects from CSA* indicated that negative effects were neither pervasive nor typically intense, and that men reacted much less negatively than women. The college data were completely consistent with data from national samples. Basic beliefs about CSA in the general population were not supported."
[* Child Sexual Abuse] 

Tromovitch, Ph., Rind, B. & Bauserman, R., Adult Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse: A meta-analytic review of college student and national probability samples, SSSS-ER April 18, 1997
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is viewed by the lay public, and by many professionals, as one of the most psychologically damaging events that a child or adolescent can experience.
[...] The findings from this report contradict prevalently held assumptions about CSA — assumptions that may bias not only the lay public, but researchers studying and reporting on activities classifiable as CSA.

Rind, Bruce & Tromovitch, Philip, A Meta-Analytic Review of Findings from National Samples on Psychological Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse, The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 34, No.3, 1997 pp. 237 - 255  
We found that, contrary to the implications and conclusions contained in previous literature reviews that were focused on biased samples, in the general population. CSA is not associated with pervasive harm and that harm, when it occurs, is not typically intense.
Further, CSA experiences for males and females are not equivalent: a substantially lower proportion of males reports negative effects.
Finally, we found that conclusions about a causal link between CSA and later psychological maladjustment in the general population cannot safely be made because of the reliable presence of confounding variables.
We concluded by cautioning that analysis at the population level does not characterize individual cases: When CSA is accompanied by factors such as force or close familial ties, it has the potential to produce significant harm.  

Bauserman, Robert & Rind, Bruce, Psychological Correlates of Male Child and Adolescent Sexual Experiences with Adults: A Review of the Nonclinical Literature, Archives of Sexual behavior, 26-2, 1997
Researchers have generally neglected sexual experiences of boys with adults, assumed them to be the same as those of girls, or tried to understand them by referring to clinical research while ignoring nonclinical research. 
A review of nonclinical research allows a more complete understanding of boys' sexual experiences with adults and the outcomes and correlates of those experiences.

New Article

Rind, Bruce, PhD., Gay and Bisexual Adolescent Boys' Sexual Experiences With Men: 
An Empirical Examination of Psychological Correlates in a Nonclinical Sample
, In: Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 30, No.4, 2001
Over the last quarter century the incest model, with its image of helpless victims exploited and traumatized by powerful perpetrators, has come to dominate perceptions of virtually all forms of adult-minor sex. Thus, even willing sexual relations between gay or bisexual adolescent boys and adult men, which differ from father-daughter incest in many important ways, are generally seen by the lay public and professionals as traumatizing and psychologically injurious. This study assessed this common perception by examining a nonclinical, mostly college sample of gay and bisexual men. 
[From the Appendix:]
"It developed over time and was great. We became friends and I invited him over once when my parents weren't home. I practically had to force sex on him because he was afraid about losing his job. Ended when I went away for the summer and he wasn't a teacher at my school no more" 

Rind, Bruce, PhD., Las experiencias sexuales de chicos gay y bisexuales adolescentes con hombres: un examen empírico de las correlaciones psicológicas en una muestra no-clínica, Publicado en: Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2001
Sobre los últimos 25 años un modelo de incesto, con su imagen de víctimas indefensas explotadas y traumatizadas por adultos poderosos, ha venido a ser dominante en las percepciones de casi todos los tipos de sexo entre adultos y menores. Así, incluso las relaciones sexuales deseados entre chicos gay / homosexuales o bisexuales adolescentes y hombres adultos -las cuales son diferentes en muchos respectos importantes del incesto entre padres y sus hijas- son generalmente considerados por el público y profesionales traumatizantes y perjudiciales psicológicamente. Este estudio valoró esta percepción común a través de un examen de una muestra no-clínica de hombres gay y bisexuales, la mayoría de ellos estudiantes universitarios. [...]
Caso 1 del Appéndice:
"Desarrolló con el tiempo y era magnífico. Llegamos a ser amigos y yo lo invité a mi casa una vez cuando mis padres no estaban.  Tuve que forzar prácticamente el sexo en él porque él tenía miedo acerca de perder su trabajo. Finalizó cuando yo me fui por el verano y él ya no era un maestro en mi escuela más" 

Rind, Bruce, De seksuele ervaringen van homo- en biseksuele tienerjongens met mannen, Een empirisch onderzoek naar psychologische samenhang in een niet-klinische steekproef, In: Archives of Sexual Behavior, jaargang 30, nummer 4, augustus 2001; Oorspronkelijke titel: ‘Gay and Bisexual Adolescent Boys’ Sexual Experiences With Men: An Empirical Examination of Psychological Correlates in a Nonclinical Sample’

In de loop van de laatste vijfentwintig jaar is het incestmodel, met zijn voorstelling van hulpeloze slachtoffers die worden uitgebuit en getraumatiseerd door machtige daders, de opvattingen over zo goed als alle vormen van seks tussen volwassenen en minderjarigen gaan overheersen. Daarom worden zelfs gewenste seksuele relaties tussen homo- of biseksuele jongens en volwassen mannen, die in verscheidene belangrijke opzichten verschillen van incest tussen vaders en dochters, algemeen door het grote publiek en door beroepsmatig betrokkenen beschouwd als traumatiserend en psychisch schadelijk. 

Dit onderzoek bekeek deze algemene opvatting door een niet-klinische, merendeels uit studenten bestaande, steekproef van homo- en biseksuele mannen te onderzoeken.

[..] We moesten maar een ander model zoeken, dat ook ruimte biedt aan het vastgestelde feit dat tienerjongens doorgaans neutraal of positief reageren op leeftijdsongelijke seksuele relaties die zij vrijwillig zijn aangegaan met volwassenen van het geslacht van hun voorkeur.

Explaining articles

Arbeitsgemeinschaft Humane Sexualität e.V., Archiv, Dr. Rind, Dr. Bauserman, Dr. Tromovitch ... wo die Freiheit der Wissenschaft ende

Gieles, F.E.J., Mister President..., The USA is shocked by the research of Rind, Bauserman & Tromovitch; chronological overview of the critical reactions; in: Ipce Newsletter E6, July 1999
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Gieles, F.E.J., Meneer de President... Amerika schrikt van wetenschappelijk onderzoek van Rind cs., in: OK Magazine nr. 69, juli-aug 1999

Gieles, F.E.J., An Explanation of the statistics, used in the Meta-analysis, in: Ipce Newsletter E7, December 1999

G. G., Radical Reconsideration of the Concept of Child Sexual Abuse, New Findings by Bauserman, Rind and Tromovitch, in: Koinos Magazine #20 (1998/4)
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G. G., Grundlegende Änderung des Begriffs ‘Sexueller Kindesmißbrauch’, Neue Erkenntnisse von Bauserman, Rind und Tromovitch, in: Koinos Magazine #20 (1998/4)
 

G. G., Ingrijpende herziening van het begrip ‘seksuele kindermishandeling’; Nieuwe ontdekkingen van Bauserman, Rind en Tromovitch; in: KOINOS MAGAZINE #20 (1998/4)

KOINOS Magazine:

KOINOS, Youthful Sexual Experience and Well-being, Important Conference in Rotterdam, in: Koinos Magazine #21 (1999/1)
 

KOINOS, Sexuelle Erfahrungen in der Jugend und Wohlbefinden, Interessantes Symposion in Rotterdam, in: Koinos Magazine #21 (1999/1)
 

KOINOS, Seksuele jeugdervaringen en welbevinden; Belangwekkende studiedag te Rotterdam; Verslag KSA studieconferentie 18-12-1998 te Rotterdam, in: in Koinos Magazine nr. 21 (1999/1)

Discussion & Comments

Berry, Kenneth K. & Berry, Jason, The Congressional censure of a research paper: Return to the Inquisition? From: Skeptical Inquirer Electronic Digest, Commentary in the issue dated December 10, 1999 
We have taken the first large and frightening step away from scientific freedom and toward totalitarianism in control of scientific endeavours.

Ericksen, Julia A., Sexual liberation's last frontier, in: Society May-June 2000, 37-4.
It is appropriate to undertake such research if only to wrest the terms of the debate from conservatives who have used pedophilia as a way to silence all attempts at sexual tolerance.

Esterie, Philippe (& Hélène Amboureux), Abus sexuel: Le rapport capital, Le rapport Bauserman analysé et commenté dans la France de l'an 2000

Gieles, F.E.J., Science and Morality or The Rind et al. Controversy, The counter arguments replied, in: Ipce Newsletter E7, December 1999
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Gieles, F.E.J., Wetenschap en moraal of: de controverse rond Rind c.s.; De tegenargumenten beantwoord

Haaken, Janice & Lamb, Sharon, Politics of CSA research, in: Society, May-June 2000, 37-4
Haaken and Lamb attempt to steer a middle ground between a social constructionist or culturally relative position on sexuality on the one hand, and an approach that emphasizes universal principles of justice and care on the other.

Oellerich, Thomas D., Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman: Politically Incorrect - Scientifically Correct, in: Sexuality & Culture, 4(2), 67-81 (2000)
The Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman study of the impact of CSA among college students is politically incorrect but scientifically correct. It has a number of important implications for the research and practice communities. Among the more important is the need to stop exaggerating the negative impact of adult/nonadult sexual behavior, as suggested earlier by both Browne and Finkelhor, and Seligman. Another important implication is for conducting research that does not approach the issue of adult/nonadult sexual behavior with a political ideology as often has been the case thus far. And finally it is time to stop the common practices of 1)assuming that CSA causes psychological harm, and 2) routinely recommending psychotherapeutic intervention.
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Oellerich, Thomas D., Rind, Tromovitch und Bauserman: Ihre meta-analytische Studie ist politisch "unkorrekt", doch wissenschaftlich hieb- und stichfest; Sexualität & Kultur, 4(2), 67-81 (2000)
Die Untersuchung von Rind, Tromovitch und Bauserman über die Auswirkungen sexuellen Kindsmissbrauchs auf College-Studenten ist politisch "unkorrekt", aber wissenschaftlich korrekt. Sie enthält eine Anzahl wichtiger Hinweise für Leute in der Forschung und in der Praxis. Einer der wichtigeren ist, mit der Übertreibung der negativen Auswirkungen sexueller Beziehungen zwischen Erwachsenen und Nichterwachsenen aufzuhören, was auch schon früher sowohl von Browne und Finkelhor wie auch von Seligman gefordert wurde. Ein anderer wichtiger Gesichtspunkt ist, eine Forschung zu betreiben, die das Thema der sexuellen Erwachsenen-Kind-Beziehungen nicht mit einer politischen Ideologie im Hinterkopf angeht, wie das bisher oft geschah. Und schliesslich ist es an der Zeit, Schluss zu machen mit der üblichen Praxis, 1) nach SKM einen psychischen Schaden zu erwarten und 2) routinemässig eine Psychotherapie zu verschreiben.
 

Oellerich, Thomas D., Rind, Tromovitch en Bauserman: politiek incorrect – wetenschappelijk correct 
Het onderzoek van Rind, Tromovitch en Bauserman naar de gevolgen van SMK onder studenten is politiek incorrect maar wetenschappelijk correct. Het heeft een aantal belangrijke implicaties voor de wetenschap en de praktijk. Een van de belangrijkste is de noodzaak om te stoppen met het overdrijven van de schadelijke gevolgen van seksueel gedrag tussen volwassenen en minderjarigen, zoals eerder werd gesteld door Browne en Finkerhor en door Seligman. Een andere belangrijke implicatie is het uitvoeren van onderzoek dat de kwestie van seksueel gedrag tussen volwassenen en minderjarigen niet vanuit een politieke ideologie benadert, zoals tot dusver vaak het geval is geweest. En tenslotte is het tijd om een eind te maken aan 1) de gebruikelijke veronderstelling dat SMK psychologische schade aanricht en 2) de gebruikelijke aanbeveling van psychotherapeutische interventie.

Rind, Bruce; Basuserman, Robert & Tromovitch, Philip, The Condemned Meta-Analysis on Child Sexual Abuse; Good Science and Long-Overdue Skepticism, In: Skeptical Inquirer July/August 20001, 68-72
In July 1999, the prestigious journal Psychological Bulletin published our review of fifty-nine studies that had examined psychological correlates of child sexual abuse (CSA) [...] We soon achieved an unexpected honor: our paper was unanimously condemned by Congress.
In the aftermath, SKEPTICAL INQUIRER has published two commentaries, one denouncing Congress [...], and the other denouncing our study [...]. We would like to offer our own thoughts about this astonishing story of politics, pressure, and social hysteria - the antitheses of critical and skeptical thought.

Rind, Bruce; Basuserman, Robert & Tromovitch, Philip, De veroordeelde meta-analyse over seksueel misbruik van kinderen; Deugdelijke wetenschap en lang uitgebleven scepticisme, in:  Skeptical Inquirer, juli/augustus 2001
In juli 1999 publiceerde het prestigieuze vakblad Psychological Bulletin onze analyse van negenenvijftig onderzoeken naar de psychologische correlaten van seksueel misbruik van kinderen (SMK) [...]. Al gauw kregen wij een onverwachte eer: ons artikel werd unaniem veroordeeld door het Amerikaanse Congres. In de nasleep publiceerde Skeptical Inquirer twee commentaren, waarvan er één het Congres laakte [...] en één ons onderzoek [...]. Wij zouden graag onze eigen gedachten presenteren over deze verbluffende geschiedenis van politiek, druk en maatschappelijke hysterie – de antithesen van kritisch en sceptisch denken.

Rind, B., Tromovitch, Ph. & Bauserman, R.,
The Clash of Media, Politics, and Sexual Science: An examination of the controversy surrounding the Psychological Bulletin meta-analysis on the assumed properties of child sexual abuse,
Talk presented at the 1999 Joint Annual meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) and the American Association of Sex Educators, Counselors, and Therapists (AASECT) November 6th, 1999 (St. Louis, Missouri).
Nine months after publication in Psychological Bulletin, our analysis of the college student data came under intense attack by the radical right with assistance from traumatologists associated with the left. This controversy recently culminated with the U.S. House of Representatives condemning the article in a 355-0 vote. We will briefly summarize the methods and findings of our analyses, then focus on subsequent events.

Tavris, Carol, , The uproar over sexual abuse and its findings, in: Society, May-June 2000, 37-4
Congress and clinicians may feel a spasm of righteousness by condemning scientific findings they dislike, but their actions will do little or nothing to reduce the actual abuse of children.

Zuriff, G.E., Pedophilia and the culture wars, in: Public Interest, Winter 2000
The article gives a short summary of the research of the Rind et al. team. Then, it will explain why the results of this research have upset many groups in the US society, including the Congress, so that these groups will deny the results of the research. 
The author analyses the remarkable reaction of the APA, who turned 180 degrees and who published paradoxes. The author analyses the ideological combat that's going on behind the scene.

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