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A Meta-Analytic Examination of Assumed Properties of Child Sexual Abuse Using College Samples

Bruce Rind
Department of Psychology

Philip Tromovitch
Graduate School of Education


Robert Bauserman
Department of Psychology University of Michigan

Note*

[NOTE: For references to this article, the original page numbers are added.
This is page 22]

CONTENT

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Titles

Original page

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Abstract

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[Introduction]

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Previous Literature Reviews

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          Qualitative Literature Reviews

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Go to >                    Causality 23
Go to >                    Intensity 23
Go to >                    Gender Equivalance  24
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          Limitations of Qualitative Literature Reviews

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Go to >                   Sampling biases 24
Go to >                   Subjectivity and imprecision 24
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          Quantitative Literature Reviews

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          Synthesis of Quantitative Reviews

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Go to >                     Causality 25
Go to >                     Pervasiveness 25
Go to >                    Intensity 26
Go to >                    Gender Equivalence 26

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Current Review

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Method

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          Sample of Studies

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          Coding the Studies

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          Psychological Correlates of CSA

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          Statistical Analysis

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Results

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          Definitions of CSA, Prevalence Rates, and Types of CSA

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Go to >                     Definitions 29
Go to >                     Prevalence rates 29
Go to >                     Types of CSA 29
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          Magnitude of the Relationship Between CSA and   Psychological Adjustment

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                    Sample-level analysis

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                    Symptom-level analysis

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          Moderator Analysis

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                   Semi-partial correlational Analyses

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                   Contrast analyses

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                   Simple correlations

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                   Moderators concerning aspects of the CSA experience

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           Self-reported Reactions to and Effects From CSA

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                    Retrospectively recalled immediate  reactions

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                    Current reflexions

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                    Self-reported effects

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                    Comparing male versus female reactions  and self-reported effects via meta-analysis

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          Family Environment

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                    Family environment-CSA relations

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                    Family environment-symptom relations

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                    Statistical control

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                    Statistical validity

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Discussion

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The Four Assumed Properties of CSA Revisited

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           Gender Equivalance

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           Causality

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           Pervasiveness and Intensity of Negative Effects or Correlates

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Moderators

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Child SexualAbuse as a Construct Reconsidered

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Summary and Conclusion

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References

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Appendix

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ABSTRACT

Many lay persons and professionals believe that child sexual abuse (CSA) causes intense harm, regardless of gender, pervasively in the general population. The authors examined this belief by reviewing 59 studies based on college samples. Meta-analyses revealed that students with CSA were, on average, slightly less well adjusted than controls. However, this poorer adjustment could not be attributed to CSA because family environment (FE) was consistently confounded with CSA, FE explained considerably more adjustment variance than CSA, and CSA-adjustment relations generally became nonsignificant when studies controlled for FE. Self-reported reactions to and effects from CSA indicated that negative effects were neither pervasive nor typically intense, and that men reacted much less negatively than women. The college data were completely consistent with data from national samples. Basic beliefs about CSA in the general population were not supported.

Note 

[The notes are originally placed at the same page they appear]

* Bruce Rind, Department of Psychology, temple University;
Philip Tromovitch, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania;
Robert Bauserman, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan.
We thank Ralph Rosnow for his meta-analytic advice and comments on an earlier draft and Steve Wexler for his helpful comments.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Bruce Rind, Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pensylvania 19122 [USA].
Electronic mail may be sent to rind@vm.temple.edu